(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

Siding installation begins by setting up a cutting and staging area for the work and clearing the site of debris or obstacles around the perimeter that might interfere with the scaffolding.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

To minimize breathing the harmful silica dust that results when fiber cement siding is sawn with power saws, carpenters use shear or scoring tools to trim the material lengths to size(see James Hardie installation instructions).

Soffits and trim ready for siding
Since the siding must be nailed into the wall studs to secure it against possible wind loads, the work begins by locating the nails through the exterior sheathing and marking the vertical stud locations.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The siding is then cut to size and nailed to these stud lines in horizontal bands while maintaining a uniform spacing and exposure. Gecko gauges are able to clamp each row while holding the subsequent rows in place to control the dimension for the exposure.

Scaffolding makes it possible to adjust the work platform vertically and install the material safely and efficiently.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The joints in at the splice points and the ends that meet the trim around the corners and doors and windows are spaced for expansion. These joints are caulked to seal the gap prior to painting the exterior walls.

Safely installing gable siding and glass
Since stack scaffolding cannot be used to install the gable clerestory and siding, the pump jacks shown in the illustration are able to adjust to existing conditions. Important is that the base of the jack-poles must be attached to the frame of the building.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

In this example, the poles are attached to the framing above the opening for the prefabricated sunroom.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Fall protection requirements are part of the project’s safety plan. According to the US Department of Occupational Safety and Health Administration, fall protection and safety rails are necessary to protect the safety of the workers whenever the nature of the work or the height of a scaffold is greater than ten feet (see the OSHA training manual here).

 

 (To be continued…)

—————————

The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

Insitebuilders.com

 

(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

There are 15 tasks shown in the close-in phase for this example. Depending on the project and local conditions, many of these tasks must be completed sequentially. But others are often installed simultaneously.Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The key to scheduling the work is to assess potential equipment or material conflicts, safety concerns, and local conditions. Poor scheduling will cause delays for subcontractors, and the workers assigned to different teams.Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

In most cases, the doors, windows, soffits, and trim are installed before the siding, but in some cases the weather will make it important to install the roofing before any of the other close-in tasks. In this example, the rolled roofing underlayment is sufficient to temporarily seal the interior.

Setting the Door and Windows
Windows are manufactured with an edge flange that is screwed to the rough framing around the wall opening. Wind loads determine the number of screws used along the sides of the door or window and are specified by local building codes or the project engineer.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Energy codes require doors and windows to be certified by the manufacturer to guarantee that they meet energy ratings for the glass and frame.

Insulating tape, similar to that shown on the familyhandyman website are installed along the sill and sides of the door and window openings before the units are set in place. Once secure the perimeter of the door and window frames are taped to complete the installation.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

When weather conditions are extreme, metal “Z” flashing further seals the door and window frame to prevent moisture penetration.

Note that building codes require tempered glazing for glass doors and adjacent windows whenever inadvertent impact might occur.

Cement Fiber Trim to Match Siding
In this example, fiber cement boards are nailed to the framing at the corners, lower edges of the outside walls and around the door and window frames. For life-cycle and maintenance information on fiber cement trim and siding, see www.jameshardie.com.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The trim above the header spans the full width of the door or window frame and the horizontal joint is caulked to the vertical trim of the jambs.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Bathroom, dryer, and plumbing vents that penetrate the outside walls and the roof are coordinated with the mechanical subcontractors and completed before the siding is installed.

 

 (To be continued…)

—————————

The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

Insitebuilders.com

.

(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

Professional builders continually reassess the close-in schedule as tasks are completed to keep the work organized, prevent conflicts, and maintain efficiency.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

When ready, the emphasis is on the tasks that need to be completed before wrapping the building with a vapor barrier and beginning preparations for the installation of the doors and windows.

Task 3 and 4: Mechanical Enclosures
Mechanical enclosures are hung from the framing on the outside of the building at the point of penetration through the outside walls.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The idea is to protect and insulate the controls and service lines from inclement weather and keep mechanical equipment outside the interior floor space.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Future repair and replacements are less intrusive when mechanical equipment is located outside the perimeter of the building. In addition, combustion air, moisture, and sound are easier to control.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders
Protection is especially important when solar exposure increases the potential for damage to equipment, ductwork, or service lines. In areas where there is a chance of freezing, sensitive supply and drain lines are insulated and extend well below the frost line.

Task 5: Building Wrap
Most energy codes require a building wrap to help prevent drafts and the leakage of conditioned air out through the perimeter walls. These are synthetic materials made from high-density polyethylene fibers and designed to prevent air and moisture penetration.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The building wrap is nailed or stapled to the exterior surface with overlaps at the seams and corners. Openings in the walls are first ignored and covered, then cut and folded back around the edges of the opening (See Dupont Tyvek).

Once installed, the sheathing and interior framing are protected by a water resistant barrier and the perimeter walls are ready for the installation of the doors and windows.

 

 (To be continued…)
—————————
The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

insitebuilders.com

.

 

(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

The actual sequence of the tasks shown on the schedule depends on the particular project, site conditions, and the availability of subcontractors and material suppliers.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The trick for the builder is to program the tasks with enough lead time to avoid potential delays, while preventing conflicts and problems by simultaneously coordinating labor, materials, and logistical support.

Task 1: Framing the Dormer
In this example, the dormer is the first task because its walls and roof must be installed before the siding, windows, and roofing can be ordered.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Weather permitting, the dormer could have been installed at the same time as the main roof framing, but installing it now allows more flexibility in its placement and orientation.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Regardless of the timing, the headers and sills that support the rafters surrounding the opening are sized according to engineered specifications for wind and roof loads. In addition, the dormer walls are prefabricated to minimize the risk for carpenters working on the roof.

Task 2: Framing the Entry Deck
The entry deck is installed as a parallel task because the work is outside the main work area and under cover of the entry roof.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

To complete the task, pressure treated joists are first hung from a ledger bolted to the reinforced foundation wall and then sized to span to a header supported by the roof columns.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The top of the joists for the deck are dropped below the main floor level to accommodate a change of materials at the entry. The dimension between the two elevations depends on the material selected for the floor coverings.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The joint is flashed with fiber and sheetmetal to prevent moisture penetration along this seam, even though weather exposure is limited by the roof and overhangs above. Note that with additional sitework, masonry or concrete steps (or a ramp) could have been installed in lieu of the entry deck framing.

 (To be continued…)

—————————

The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

Insitebuilders.com

(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

Once the temporary roofing is in place, doors, windows, insulation, and exterior finish materials are installed along with the final roofing to waterproof the shell of the building. Labor and materials must be carefully coordinated during this phase to complete these tasks efficiently, prevent conflicts in the schedule for the various trades, and ensure the safety of the workers.

Fall Protection and Construction Safety
The traditional framing methods shown in this example mean materials are exposed to the weather for a longer period of time so care must be taken at the end of each day to protect them from moisture and deterioration.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

This longer framing schedule also increases the possibility of accident or injury, making construction safety and the use of proper equipment essential, even on simple residential jobsites.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Safety management includes fall protection harnesses, tether lines with limiters, toe boards, spotters, material hoists, ladder ties, scaffolding, and common sense.

Multitasking the Exterior Finishes
Careful scheduling is important to efficiently coordinate the multiple tasks and subcontractors working on the project during this phase.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

A simple bar chart helps visualize the scope of the work needed to complete the close-in. The length of the bar represents the estimated time to complete each task, and the horizontal position of the bar on the chart indicates its relative sequence and timing.

The Tasks Include
1. Finish carpenters: The work begins by completing the framing so that the exterior surfaces of the house can be wrapped with a vapor barrier and sealed with trim and siding.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

This includes the walls and roof for the dormer, framing for the mechanical enclosures, and adding nailers and blocking to support the trim, siding, and the flashing and roofing.

2. Doors, windows, and glass: Once the framing is finalized, a vapor barrier is rolled out and stapled to the sheathing to wrap the house. Openings are then fiber-taped to complete the seal before the doors and window frames are inserted and screwed to the rough openings (See also Dupont Flashing Systems).

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

3. Siding and trim: Trim is then installed at the corners, base of the exterior walls, and around the doors and windows before the siding begins. In this example, a pre-painted cement fiber siding is shown set against the trim to protect the framing from the weather.

4. Finished roofing: Roof vents, skylights, and the prefabricated sunroom are finalized along with flashing for the metal roofing. Bathroom skylights and the sunroom enclosure are installed by the finish carpenters.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Two types of metal roofing will be illustrated in this example: the first with concealed fasteners and standing seams; and the other an exposed fastener system using special screws with neoprene washers. Both types of roofing are placed over sleepers and runners attached to the roof sheathing through the waterproof underlayment.

 (To be continued…)

—————————
The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

Insitebuilders.com

.

(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Roofing, 6.Shell, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

The advantages of the open ceiling that results from traditional roof framing include the more expansive “feel” in the room below and the space gained for lofts or light shelves that is normally lost to trusses.

Sheathing ties the roof together
As the framing for the hip roof is completed, sheathing is nailed to the roof rafters to stiffen the frame and tie the roof together as a unified structural system.

Framing Phase – Insitebuilders
Note that the sheathing is laid in a staggered pattern and that nail spacing is again specified in structural calculations according to local building codes.

Framing Phase – Insitebuilders
Impregnated asphalt felt is rolled out immediately after the sheathing is finalized. The material is lapped and tacked into place with flat-washer-roofing nails to temporarily waterproof the framing below. Special high-density and reflective polyethylene sheets are used instead of asphalt felt on larger commercial roofs.

Slope change at bathroom roof
In this example, a shed roof is framed over a separate section of the floor plan. The shallow slope of the shed roof raises the ceiling height in the room below.

Framing Phase – Insitebuilders
Hangers for the rafters are secured to a ledger along the upper ridgeline of the roof. The rafters then span to bear on the top plate of the perimeter walls. Jack rafters are cut to fit the diagonal at the valley intersection.

Framing Phase – Insitebuilders
The angle and configuration of the compound cut at the valley make it possible to use full penetration toe nailing through the rafter in lieu of a manufactured structural connector.

Framing Phase – Insitebuilders
To minimize waste, blocking is cut from the dropped ends of the rafters as the roof framing is completed.

Sheathing and underlayment complete
As soon as the sheathing is completed, the asphalt felt underlayment works to waterproof the framing until the roofing contractors can begin their installation.

Framing Phase – Insitebuilders
Experienced carpenters manage the effects of rain, snow, and jobsite moisture in order to prevent damage to the framing members and the possibility of embedded mold and mildew that can occur in regions with high humidity.

.

(To be continued…)

—————————

The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

 

 

(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Roofing, 6.Shell, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

The framing for the hip roof requires compound cuts along the ridge lines at the intersections of the sloping hip roofs. The angles for these cuts are derived from the plane or slope at these intersections.

Calculating the hip ridge beam
The pitch of the hip’s ridge beams was once determined using a “rule of thumb” and some intuitive guessing on the part of a lead carpenter, but Simpson StrongTie has since set up an online calculator that makes the field-work much easier. The calculator can be found here.

Framing Phase – Insitebuilders

Start the calculation by inputting the slope of the Main Roof and the Hip Roof. The pitch of the main roof is the same as the longer north-south slope that has already been erected. The hip roof is the triangular portion of the roof that remains to be constructed.

After you press “CALCULATE,” The results are shown on a table.

Framing Phase – Insitebuilders

For this roof the 12:12 pitch of the main and hip roofs result in a 35.3 degree pitch for the ridge beams on each side of the hip roof.

Setting the hip ridge beams
The geometry of the roof means that these hip beams slope from the end of the cantilevered ridge to each corner of the wall framing. In this example, the angle is about 35 degrees.

Framing Phase – Insitebuilders

Structural connectors are used to secure the ends of the hip ridge beams at the cantilevered ridge and the wall corners. These connectors are important because they counter the lateral and uplift loads imposed on the roof by strong wind or seismic activity.

Setting the hip jack rafters
Once the ridge beams are in place, “jack rafters” are cut at a compound angle so they fit to the side of the hip beam. A jack rafter is a short rafter used to complete the framing for the roof at a hip or valley.

Framing Phase – Insitebuilders

Cutting the compound angle requires an experienced carpenter because the cut must match the pitch of the main and hip roofs as well as the angle of the ridge along the intersecting planes.

Framing Phase – Insitebuilders

Skilled carpenters start with the lower jack rafters, testing their cuts and creating a template that they then use as a guide to complete the framing. Once the rafters are in place, the overhangs are trimmed to receive the structural fascia and the roof sheathing is added to stiffen the framing.

Note that fall protection is not always required for residential construction, but it is critical for safety regardless of the height of the roof and local codes.

 

(To be continued…)

—————————

The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

Insitebuilders

.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 168 other followers