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(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

The last step in the Close-In Phase (the shell) begins once the flashing is complete and the work area is ready to start cutting roofing panels. Metal roofing with concealed fasteners is considered by many to be more aesthetically pleasing, but there are applications when exposed fasteners are more practical.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

This includes buildings where additions or future changes are anticipated that will require removing roofing panels. Metal roofing with exposed fasteners are also easier to install and require no special tools or hardware.

Metal roofing with exposed fasteners
Once the underlying flashing is complete, the roofing panels are cut and mounted either directly to the roof deck or to furring strips laid over the temporary roofing membrane.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

When weather conditions are either extremely cold or hot, the furring strips create an air space that prevents direct heat transfer from the metal panels through the sheathing to the interior. This air space also helps to prevent heat loss from the interior to the metal surface that causes ice dams from melting snow.

Rigid insulation is applied to the roof deck when batt or blown insulation is not installed in the attic or space between the ceiling joist and rafters.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Special roofing screws with EDPM washers penetrate the high point of the metal roofing, spaced according to manufacturer specifications, and engineered to counter uplift from wind loads.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The screws are long enough to secure the roofing panels, flashing, and the furring and rigid insulation, if used. Building codes require the screws to fully penetrate the roof sheathing so that the threads of their tips are visible for inspection from the interior.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Once the roofing is complete, exterior finishes and sitework are finalized. This includes touch up for prepainted trim, siding, and flashing as well as finish sitework, landscaping, vents, screens, and skirts around the pier foundation.

Sitework and landscaping that includes sprays, dust, insecticides, or other chemicals are always coordinated with the interior subcontractors to prevent contaminants from entering the building. “NO SMOKING” signs are also posted at all entries before the interior work begins.

 

 (To be continued…)

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The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

 

Insitebuilders.com 

(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

Unless there are interior finishes, furnishings, or materials that require protection earlier in the schedule, the finished roofing is the last step in the close-in process.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders 

Timing depends on when mechanical and electrical rough-in is scheduled, since roof and wall penetrations are often necessary for vents, intake, and outflow lines that extend through the roof from the walls and ceilings.

The roof flashing
A professional roofing contractor begins work by setting up the site and the rooftop for the work. This includes the installation of toe boards, chicken ladders on steep slope roofs, and tie off points for personal fall protection.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Local building codes do not specify safety procedures for roofing contractors, but the United States Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration requires fall protection on residential roofs for employees working six or more feet above a lower level (See Fall Protection in Residential Construction).

Roof flashing is a flattened fiber, elastomer polymer (EPDM), or sheet metal material shaped to prevent leaks by covering the joints, edges, and angles of the roof, especially where the roof comes in contact with a vertical surface that comes “through the roof.”

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The flashing for metal roofs with concealed fasteners is an integral part of the roofing system and installed with proprietary methods, tools, and clips to ensure a secure seal.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Note that the roofing contractor will coordinate their work with the other trades to fit siding, trim, and other exterior finish materials over or under the roof flashing.

See the Metal Roofing Alliance website for information on different types of metal roofing, detailed specifications, and expert advice.

Metal Roofing with concealed fastener
A galvanized metal roof with concealed fasteners provides a seamless seal against moisture penetration, reducing energy costs and providing a much longer life cycle than other types of roofing. Color choices depend on climate and site conditions, white is the most reflective, while darker colors will absorb more solar energy.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The concealed fasteners anchor the metal panels to roof sheathing or furring strips depending on insulation requirements and local conditions.

The clips are screwed to the roof structure with tabs that bend over the panel edges, and are snapped to battens extruded in the panels. Once snapped into place, the roofing system is secure against wind loads, icing, and other weather related problems.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The installation of metal roofing is most efficient on houses with simple roofs, but there are a variety of special pieces that can be used to accommodate almost any configuration when the system is installed by a professional roofing contractor.

 

 (To be continued…)
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The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

insitebuilders.com 

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(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

To minimize the possibility of damage from overhead work, the sunroom and skylights are installed before the roofing and after the clerestory and siding have been completed.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Installing a custom sunroom
Most sunrooms are available as kits with screens and glass set in an aluminum or vinyl frame (see the Better Living Guide to Sunrooms). These kits are sold by authorized contractors and are by far the easiest way to install a sunroom.

In this example, a custom-made sunroom is field constructed by skilled finish carpenters to fit an existing opening. Note that local codes may require detailed engineering drawings or specific factory labeling, indicating test results for positive and negative design pressures.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The frame must be weather resistant, carefully joined, and treated with a sealant and stained or painted before the glass is installed. In most climates, a clear, vertical grain pressure treated wood or composite, similar to that used for exterior decking, is the best choice for the framing material.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The rafters and stops are routed to secure the glass and are spaced to match the size of standard insulated and tempered glass panels. These panels are similar to those used for window walls in commercial buildings and are sourced from the same suppliers.

Installing the skylights
Skylights are often specified to replace windows in small rooms that require daylight and natural ventilation and are manufactured to meet energy and building code requirements.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Operable skylights must be placed away from nearby plumbing and exhaust vents to prevent cross contamination and the intake of harmful gases. Required distances are governed by local building codes.

When the unit is ready to be bolted to a curb that was built around the opening in the roof, flashing is installed by the roofing contractor, and the prefabricated flanges of the skylight frame are set to counterflash the roofing material and seal the opening.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

As an alternative, flush mounted skylights are available to avoid ice or debris buildup against the curb, improve energy efficiency, and lower the visual profile of the unit on the roof (See especially www.velux.com).

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 (To be continued…)

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The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

Insitebuilders.com

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(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

Siding installation begins by setting up a cutting and staging area for the work and clearing the site of debris or obstacles around the perimeter that might interfere with the scaffolding.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

To minimize breathing the harmful silica dust that results when fiber cement siding is sawn with power saws, carpenters use shear or scoring tools to trim the material lengths to size(see James Hardie installation instructions).

Soffits and trim ready for siding
Since the siding must be nailed into the wall studs to secure it against possible wind loads, the work begins by locating the nails through the exterior sheathing and marking the vertical stud locations.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The siding is then cut to size and nailed to these stud lines in horizontal bands while maintaining a uniform spacing and exposure. Gecko gauges are able to clamp each row while holding the subsequent rows in place to control the dimension for the exposure.

Scaffolding makes it possible to adjust the work platform vertically and install the material safely and efficiently.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The joints in at the splice points and the ends that meet the trim around the corners and doors and windows are spaced for expansion. These joints are caulked to seal the gap prior to painting the exterior walls.

Safely installing gable siding and glass
Since stack scaffolding cannot be used to install the gable clerestory and siding, the pump jacks shown in the illustration are able to adjust to existing conditions. Important is that the base of the jack-poles must be attached to the frame of the building.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

In this example, the poles are attached to the framing above the opening for the prefabricated sunroom.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Fall protection requirements are part of the project’s safety plan. According to the US Department of Occupational Safety and Health Administration, fall protection and safety rails are necessary to protect the safety of the workers whenever the nature of the work or the height of a scaffold is greater than ten feet (see the OSHA training manual here).

 

 (To be continued…)

—————————

The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

Insitebuilders.com

 

(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

There are 15 tasks shown in the close-in phase for this example. Depending on the project and local conditions, many of these tasks must be completed sequentially. But others are often installed simultaneously.Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The key to scheduling the work is to assess potential equipment or material conflicts, safety concerns, and local conditions. Poor scheduling will cause delays for subcontractors, and the workers assigned to different teams.Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

In most cases, the doors, windows, soffits, and trim are installed before the siding, but in some cases the weather will make it important to install the roofing before any of the other close-in tasks. In this example, the rolled roofing underlayment is sufficient to temporarily seal the interior.

Setting the Door and Windows
Windows are manufactured with an edge flange that is screwed to the rough framing around the wall opening. Wind loads determine the number of screws used along the sides of the door or window and are specified by local building codes or the project engineer.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Energy codes require doors and windows to be certified by the manufacturer to guarantee that they meet energy ratings for the glass and frame.

Insulating tape, similar to that shown on the familyhandyman website are installed along the sill and sides of the door and window openings before the units are set in place. Once secure the perimeter of the door and window frames are taped to complete the installation.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

When weather conditions are extreme, metal “Z” flashing further seals the door and window frame to prevent moisture penetration.

Note that building codes require tempered glazing for glass doors and adjacent windows whenever inadvertent impact might occur.

Cement Fiber Trim to Match Siding
In this example, fiber cement boards are nailed to the framing at the corners, lower edges of the outside walls and around the door and window frames. For life-cycle and maintenance information on fiber cement trim and siding, see www.jameshardie.com.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The trim above the header spans the full width of the door or window frame and the horizontal joint is caulked to the vertical trim of the jambs.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Bathroom, dryer, and plumbing vents that penetrate the outside walls and the roof are coordinated with the mechanical subcontractors and completed before the siding is installed.

 

 (To be continued…)

—————————

The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

Insitebuilders.com

.

(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

Professional builders continually reassess the close-in schedule as tasks are completed to keep the work organized, prevent conflicts, and maintain efficiency.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

When ready, the emphasis is on the tasks that need to be completed before wrapping the building with a vapor barrier and beginning preparations for the installation of the doors and windows.

Task 3 and 4: Mechanical Enclosures
Mechanical enclosures are hung from the framing on the outside of the building at the point of penetration through the outside walls.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The idea is to protect and insulate the controls and service lines from inclement weather and keep mechanical equipment outside the interior floor space.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Future repair and replacements are less intrusive when mechanical equipment is located outside the perimeter of the building. In addition, combustion air, moisture, and sound are easier to control.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders
Protection is especially important when solar exposure increases the potential for damage to equipment, ductwork, or service lines. In areas where there is a chance of freezing, sensitive supply and drain lines are insulated and extend well below the frost line.

Task 5: Building Wrap
Most energy codes require a building wrap to help prevent drafts and the leakage of conditioned air out through the perimeter walls. These are synthetic materials made from high-density polyethylene fibers and designed to prevent air and moisture penetration.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The building wrap is nailed or stapled to the exterior surface with overlaps at the seams and corners. Openings in the walls are first ignored and covered, then cut and folded back around the edges of the opening (See Dupont Tyvek).

Once installed, the sheathing and interior framing are protected by a water resistant barrier and the perimeter walls are ready for the installation of the doors and windows.

 

 (To be continued…)
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The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

insitebuilders.com

.

 

(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

The actual sequence of the tasks shown on the schedule depends on the particular project, site conditions, and the availability of subcontractors and material suppliers.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The trick for the builder is to program the tasks with enough lead time to avoid potential delays, while preventing conflicts and problems by simultaneously coordinating labor, materials, and logistical support.

Task 1: Framing the Dormer
In this example, the dormer is the first task because its walls and roof must be installed before the siding, windows, and roofing can be ordered.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Weather permitting, the dormer could have been installed at the same time as the main roof framing, but installing it now allows more flexibility in its placement and orientation.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

Regardless of the timing, the headers and sills that support the rafters surrounding the opening are sized according to engineered specifications for wind and roof loads. In addition, the dormer walls are prefabricated to minimize the risk for carpenters working on the roof.

Task 2: Framing the Entry Deck
The entry deck is installed as a parallel task because the work is outside the main work area and under cover of the entry roof.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

To complete the task, pressure treated joists are first hung from a ledger bolted to the reinforced foundation wall and then sized to span to a header supported by the roof columns.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The top of the joists for the deck are dropped below the main floor level to accommodate a change of materials at the entry. The dimension between the two elevations depends on the material selected for the floor coverings.

Close-In Phase – Insitebuilders

The joint is flashed with fiber and sheetmetal to prevent moisture penetration along this seam, even though weather exposure is limited by the roof and overhangs above. Note that with additional sitework, masonry or concrete steps (or a ramp) could have been installed in lieu of the entry deck framing.

 (To be continued…)

—————————

The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.

Insitebuilders.com

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