(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish )

On most projects, work continues inside the building at the same time as the sitework. The interior work begins with wall and roof cavity insulation, sealing the underside of the floor joists, and expansive foam injected into the seams in the framing to prevent drafts and air loss.

In this example, the roof rafters and ceilings are insulated with batt insulation. Foil and rigid insulation boards were laid on the roof’s upper surface at the same time the metal roofing was installed – see Roofing.

When a truss roof is used, the bottom chords of the trusses are filled with blown fiberglass.

Finish Phase – Insitebuilders

The wall cavities are filled with batt insulation or an expansive-foam. Rigid insulation was installed against the foundation walls prior to the excavation backfill.

Detail of insulation types
This wall section illustrates how heat is transferred through the ceiling, walls, and foundations of the building.

Finish Phase – Insitebuilders

Heat transfer
Heat is conducted through the exterior surfaces over time. A warm room will lose heat to cold outside air and, conversely, a cool room will draw in heat from warmer outside temperatures.

Finish Phase – Insitebuilders

Insulation slows the rate of the heat transfer and the rate of the transfer varies according to the weather, type of construction, and total R-value of the exterior surfaces.

Finish Phase – Insitebuilders

R-value is the measure of resistance to heat transfer. The greater the R-value the slower the heat transfer. Every component of the construction adds to the total R-value, but only the insulation adds significant thermal resistance.

Calculating heat loss and heat
Energy is expended by the building’s mechanical system as it adjusts the heating or cooling supply to moderate indoor air temperature.

Finish Phase – Insitebuilders

For complex structures, mechanical engineers use performance-based heat loss calculations to determine the size of the mechanical system. For standard residential construction a prescriptive code lists minimum R-Value for all outside surfaces.

Finish Phase – Insitebuilders

Calculations are then based on temperature differentials, volume of the conditioned spaces, surface R-values, and the size and location of windows and other openings.
Heat gain calculations also take into account the number of occupants, solar exposure, equipment, and appliances.

Finish Phase – Insitebuilders

Heating and cooling requirements for the mechanical system are specified in British thermal units (BTU). The efficiency of the system is measured as a Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER or ESEER). The higher the SEER ratings the less energy consumed.




(To be continued…)


The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.



(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish )

The finish phase for this house includes the sitework, insulation, wall board, furnishings, cabinets, and mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) fixtures and trim. From the start of this phase, contaminants, flammables, and smoking are no longer allowed in the building.

The Finish Phase seals the walls
The sequence of the work varies according to site conditions, contractor availability, and the specified interior details. To prevent conflict or damage while the sitework is underway, staging areas and pathways are marked for subcontractor access.

Finish Phase – Insitebuilders

When all work within the wall cavities is complete, insulation is installed to seal the frame and the walls.

Finish Phase Phase – Insitebuilders

Wall board installation includes a variety of types of drywall, plaster, cement boards, tile, paneling and trim. Furnishings include shelving, flooring, baseboards, mirrors, crown molds, stairs, rails, and related finished carpentry.

Finish Phase – Insitebuilders

The cabinets are installed over primed or painted surfaces. At the same time, MEP fixtures and trim are fitted and tested. These include electrical equipment, outlets, lights, wall plates, as well as hot water heaters, sinks, control knobs, and water closets.

After inspection, final power and water are hooked-up by the public utility companies. Testing and operational checks begin once the contractors have finished and the building is cleared of debris and cleaned for occupancy. 

Why a construction model ?
A 3D design model illustrates a static concept. A 4D building information model (BIM) is put together to publish and print a set of specifications, 2D contract documents, and material takeoffs.

MEP Phase – Insitebuilders

A construction model is a piece-based assembly used to simulate a dynamic process. It animates site utilization, resource planning, site safety, staging, falsework, scaffolding, and of course the sequence of construction.

MEP Phase – Insitebuilders

As a construction model, it is a hands-on tool that can be annotated or streamed as video delivered to the jobsite as an interactive virtual environment. The result bypasses the printed page to deliver proprietary project information throughout the construction process.



(To be continued…)


The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.



(Introduction, Syllabus, 1.Prelims, 1-4Precon, 2. Excavation, 3.Foundation, 4.Framing, 5.Close-In, 6.Roofing, 7.MEP, 8.Finish)

The electrical plan for a residential building looks a lot more complicated than it really is. This is because licensed electrical contractors are careful to comply with local electrical codes that clearly specify materials, connection, and methods of installation.

The Electrical Plan
Electrical contractors use the electrical plan to understand the general layout of the building, note any special features or unusual conditions, and apply a rule of thumb based on the number of outlets, switches, fixtures, and special connections that are specified.

MEP Phase – Insitebuilders

The plan uses a standard set of symbols to show the location of the service connection, meter location, and interior distribution panels. It also shows the placement of outlets, switches, and the fixtures that will be required.

MEP Phase – Insitebuilders

The locations shown are not exact. Final placement is determined by the electrician and owner just before the subcontractor begins the work to rough-in the wiring and junction boxes.

The Service Panel Distributes Power
Circuits are balanced according to anticipated loads and the detailed requirements of state and local electrical codes. Generally, there are three types of circuits in a residential building.

MEP Phase – Insitebuilders

Wiring to all the required connections depends on the location of the service panel and the structural framing members that will be drilled for the installation.

MEP Phase – Insitebuilders

The total amperage entering the house from the utility provider is divided into branch circuits at the service panel. Each branch is designed to carry anticipated loads for receptacles, lights and switches, and dedicated fixtures on that circuit.

For safety, it’s important that an experienced, licensed electrical contractor calculate the loads represented by the electrical plan and install the correct circuit breakers.



 (To be continued…)


The material presented in this series has been taken from our book, “How a House is Built: With 3D Construction Models” The book includes annotated illustrations, captioned text, videos, models, and the 2D Preliminaries.


Some might think social media is only good for constructors (and designers) with nothing better to do than shift through the self-promoting babble found in the constant banter of marketing information on Facebook or MySpace. But they have it wrong.

Insitebuilders - Twitter Use

For many project managers, social media is a way to see both the big picture of what’s happening in the industry and eavesdrop on what their competitors are doing. In practice, they are able to mine public information by reading posts and searching keywords to build competitive strategies in an ever changing construction industry.

Twitter is simple and spontaneous
In particular, the simplicity and off-handed comments found in apps like Twitter bring out unguarded exchanges that are telling when seen in the context of a stream of related tweets. This includes inadvertent security breaches by marketing staff and employees about current or pending projects.

Insitebuilders - Twitter Followings

You might think nothing substantive can be said in 140 characters, but add a consistent presence in a Twitter timeline along with links and pictures and these seemingly innocuous little posts begin to reflect not only a broad view of the industry, but a particular company’s way of thinking. As such, it doesn’t take long to read, recognize, and evaluate the collective thoughts found in the underlying messages that are exposed by this media.

This deeper understanding of a group’s thinking is in fact what makes Twitter valuable as a collaborative tool. In fact, any idea that Twitter is just for sending, sorting, and searching messages misses the power of this new media to visually direct a team’s collective consciousness toward a single minded focus.

Twitter as a management tool
The key to using Twitter as a management tool is to harness this interaction in a carefully controlled Twitter list or account. The objective is literally to crowd source the project from its inception, deeply embedding “buy-in” for team members as they are invited to join as followers. Important is that as followers, they are invited into the group and remain only as long as they add value to the team as a whole. In other words, their tweets become a measure of the value they bring to the collaborative efforts of the team as a whole.

Insitebuilders - Twitter Basics

In these exchanges, the concise nature of a tweet means project communications are no longer delayed or distorted by staged meetings, reports, proposals, or carefully rendered models. Instead spontaneous messages are sent immediately as part of a continuous flow of input, ideas, and second screen comments that shape the ongoing communications between active team members.

The value of Twitter is therefore the immediacy of the media itself. Participating in the conversation is like feeling the pulse of the entire project team, mashed together into a project long stream of consciousness that is visible in the flow of tweets, retweets, replies, hashtags, and comments, supplemented by photos, video, illustrations, and model images that carry their own perceptive insights.

SketchUp and Twitter
SketchUp adds to these interactions with site scans, photographs, videos, and illustrations from construction models that reinforce content with an immediate visual context for each tweet.

Insitebuilders - SketchUp Image Library

Collaboration begins between principals using site utilization models and overlays to establish scope, later in massing studies, simplified design models, and engineering as early images are gradually mixed by select followers with line item specific content from spreadsheets and schedules.

Like the tweets themselves, cumbersome documents are reduced to real time snapshots, visually gif-ifying content by clarifying collaborative exchanges from concept, through construction, and into facilities management.

Twitter apps are tools
The apps used to contribute and maintain this content are an ever changing collection of programs that were once used to send simple quick posts to a public forum, but have now advanced into sophisticated tools that incorporate multi-project administration. These include:

Insitebuilders - SMS Tweets

Short message service (SMS), still the fastest way to tweet images and video into a project account. Twitter uses short codes to sync text messages and images directly into an account from any cell phone with a camera.

Insitebuilders - Twitter App

Twitter also has an app that makes tweeting a little more complicated. The app has four icons: Home for your current timeline, Connect to track Interactions/Mentions, Discover as the search menu, and Me for settings and profiles. Click the New Tweet icon in the upper right corner to tweet and add a picture, video, or a library image.

Insitebuilders - TweetDeck
Tweetdeck works pretty much the same way as the Twitter app, except it categorizes tweets into separate timelines. Image attachments are currently limited to Library Photos and Take Photo, but no videos, which eliminates motion captures (except via YouTube). Names have been changed to Home, Me, Inbox, and Search as you swipe horizontally to access adjacent screens.

Insitebuilders - HootSuite
HootSuite adds menu features to manage lists as categories of followers. It has a Compose menu for tweets, with images limited to Take Photo and Choose From Library, again no video, except through YouTube. Hootsuite’s menus also include Streams instead of Home, a Search function, Stats, and Contacts.

Posterous is one of the most comprehensive of the Twitter apps. Instead of lists, Posterous uses Spaces to divide content. Each Space is actually a micro-blog/website where any member in the Space can contribute longer descriptive text along with a range of photos, videos, and illustrations. Text and images are posted through tweets, emails, or directly within the Posterous program.

In the end, each of these apps has its limitations, with some, like GroupTweets, fading with obsolescence and inattention. At the same time, to maintain the value of immediate and unguarded collaborative exchanges, a Twitter app should be simple and fast enough to serve its purpose as an immediately useable multimedia messaging tool.


Mobile Construction Modeling

December 12, 2012

It’s hard to believe but the first commercially available email programs didn’t appear until the late 1980’s, and though the communication benefits of electronic messaging were clear by the mid 90’s, many construction companies didn’t use email until the very late 1990’s and early 2000’s.

2D Techs or Construction Managers
In fact, it took a new generation of project managers to introduce this simple technology to reluctant old-timers – and as most would admit, the fight goes on.

For example, now that cell phones and voice mail have become standards for project communications, some offices actually still take messages on hand written note pads, while senior managers without keyboard skills have assistants write memos and handle emails for them, finding computers intrusive, distracting, and perhaps a little frightening.

Insitebuilders-BIM Tweet

At the same time, according to a recent tweet from The Mortensen Company, more contractors now use BIM software than designers. Of course, it goes without saying that the average builder has no idea who Mortensen is, and though construction companies may claim to own some version of BIM software, complex 3D modeling is largely ignored for spreadsheets, print outs, and face to face fieldwork during actual construction.  Even at Mortensen’s.

BIM in the Real World
It’s no secret then that BIM software requires trained technicians, anchored to software and graphic workstations that require constant updates and attention. In practice, working with this kind of technology is simply not practical on most jobsites, especially when a rolled out set of printed 2d contract documents are the basis for the actual scope of the work.

Insitebuilders-BIM min

It’s also important to point out that design, including BIM and its 2D documents are only a very small part of the real world of construction management. Based on the value and cost of services, barely 10% of the entire process is design, permitting, and preconstruction, and of that, perhaps half of the effort falls into actual BIM production.

90% of Construction is Communications
Following the money, the focus should be on what is happening on the jobsite and finding ways to communicate more efficiently with the real world that surrounds it.

Insitebuilders - SketchUp Max

Especially considering that today, computer programs like SketchUp transfer files over the internet, send emails from menu selections, and automatically upload images, cost and schedule data, and daily reports to the cloud as a common way of storing, cataloging, and accessing construction information.

For a new generation of managers, communications between team members now occurs on PDAs (personal data assistants), immediately using smart phones to photo, scan, text, and tweet annotated images and video exported from SketchUp to coordinate project activities.

Mobility is the New Norm
The mobility of these new devices and their ability to access an unlimited combination of resources has become a fundamental part of a continuous and instantaneous flow of project communications.

Insitebuilders - Twitterize

All of which is broadcasted wirelessly via satellite, cells, or broadband routers, giving managers immediate access to project information, the web for searches and bookmarks, networking platforms like Linked In and Facebook for market and background information, and graphical tools like You-Tube, image reference libraries, and animations for process control.

Today, the challenge is to understand how to use these new technologies effectively for construction communications, waiting again for a new generation of builders to demonstrate their competitive value in the real world.


Builders who chose to be “outsiders” use random objects as form-givers, apply them as immediate solutions, stockpile them for some future application, or recognize some latent potential that inspires an entirely new direction in a constantly evolving architectural form.

Insitebuilders -Outsider Architecture Example

Outsiders touch at the soul of a self-taught vision, human feelings, and an unmediated freedom of expression. Free from the constraints of stylistic trends and social expectations, these builders sculpt their constructions in real time.

Insitebuilders -Outsider Architecture Example

Guided by instinct and a hands-on feel for their material, these self-taught builders use intuition and their own internal logic to assemble buildings that stand outside the mainstream of our more common social constructions. What we see as a result appears disordered to the institutionalized eye because they stand outside the boundaries of a straight and level world.

Homebuilt builders
Homebuilt house builders are also outsiders. They too are self-taught, intuitive, and self-determined. They also work to assemble a house without a plan according to random opportunities, not knowing when the work will ever be completed, or what it might look like if it ever is eventually finished.

Insitebuilders - Homebuilt House

What we see in a homebuilt house is architecture in motion, constantly evolving, responding to opportunities, material finds, and the insecurities of their uncertain worlds. Because they work on the margins of a formal economy, the construction of their buildings extends deep into an informal economy, where self-determination and self-reliance are largely misunderstood because of the characteristic chaos of what is a materially impoverished architectural vernacular.

As the product of informal transactions, these buildings are interesting counterpoints to the formal practices of modern construction industries, opening a window into the constraints modern builders face, including diminished craft for contracts and limited creative contributions in the buildings that they build. Their exclusion comes from the abstract explanations used to represent real world construction.

Two-dimensional abstractions
What outsider architecture points to is how difficult it is to plan and capture its buildings in a 2D drawing or even a 3D model prior to their actual construction. By definition, outsider architecture, whether artistic or impoverished, defy preplanned abstractions.

Insitebuilders - Sagrada Familia

Two-dimensional abstractions came with social controls that introduced specializations. Beginning with commissioned oil paintings that vaguely suggested a direction for builders to follow, these illustrations came to separate craft from construction. With industrialization and modernity, paintings evolved into technical drawings, ink on linen, then 1000h, vellum, Mylar, and finally CAD — now hyped as BIM/3D (to 2D).

In the end, it’s these cut and paste, two-dimensional tools that have come to shape our sense of order. Along with the predictability of the processes they dictate, the builder has been long removed from the creative process, forced to follow contractual documents as a linear and unimaginative legal obligation.

“…process becomes a substitute for thinking.” Elon Musk

Of course, without a plan, there can be no permits, contracts, or predictable outcomes to their architecture. But there is also a freedom in the absence of a plan to build structures in ways that parallel the hands-on origins of architecture as an outsider, allowing builders to think creatively in the field.

Outsider documentation
At the same time, there’s value in capturing and understanding an outsider’s method, not in anticipation of an installation or to analyze alternate assemblies, but as a device to definitively track and deconstruct an erratic and unpredictable process in order to validate the logic of its construction.

Insitebuilders -Outsider Architecture Example

These are buildings that do not fit well in an abstract 2D world, instead they are piece-based and resource driven, and must be sequenced and animated in real-time to interactively identify each piece as part of an erratic assembly, exactly as it occurs in the real world.

Unlike the linear BIM to 2D translations used in the field today, the indeterminate nature of outsider architecture requires multidimensional construction models that draw on the full potential of computational tools just now becoming available.

Insitebuilders -Outsider Architecture Example

A good example of these new tools is the SimFonIA Animation Plug-in for SketchUp. Almost a complete rewrite of the SketchUp interface, the software allows outsiders to animate a piece-based construction model by directly controlling the graphical attributes of groups and components within the model. This includes the use of key frames as predefined transformations and relative motions between objects during an intermittent assembly process.

Because the hierarchy of the groups is respected by SAT’s software, attributes and transformations respond to time, gravity, and conflicts, allowing builders to revisit and replay undocumented sequences in order to understand or further explain what was, at least at the time, an otherwise indeterminate process. A construction document that follows these kinds of object oriented data relationships opens the door to a real time, interactive, multidimensional construction document as a system of graphical information.

The value of such a document is obvious to a builder who works outside the bureaucratic constraints of our regulatory governments. But to mainstream practitioners, institutionalized methods and formalized practices mean such an open-ended approach to construction communication remains well beyond the margins of our now antiquated BIM/3D (to 2D) standards.


#2 Piece-based Assembly

November 10, 2011

A 3D construction model starts by first “fabricating” the pieces for the construction and then assembling them exactly as they would be put together in the real world.  You can make the pieces as you build the model, or copy and paste them from any previous models.  Inferences and guidelines simplify the assembly and the final quality of the construction.

SketchUp’s Components or Groups?
The key to fast construction modeling is to keep the pieces named and organized so that they are readily available for both field changes and new constructions.  The best way to keep a large collection of proprietary pieces organized is in a library folder on your hard-drive.

Insitebuilders - SketchUp Component Library

Alternatively, for some projects, you might want to set up a virtual staging area in the same or a separate SketchUp model file.  Lay-down yards or staging areas help visually control materials and manage inventory.

Pieces you drag into a model from a library folder are always Components, while pieces you copy from a virtual staging area can be either Groups or Components.  The difference is important because Groups can be edited without affecting copies of the group in the same model.  But Components must be made “unique” so they can be edited without affecting their clones or matching copies.

For a construction model, minor changes to a series of Components can quickly overwhelm even a simple piece-based assembly.  It’s much faster to Explode, Group, Edit and rename the Component as a new Group, especially if you use the Outliner to track a materials list.

Explode, regroup, and rename

Built-in Inferences
Inferences, as visual hints in SketchUp make it possible to quickly assemble the pieces.  There are three basic types of Inferences that are important to construction modeling:

1.  First, there are the Inferences found on the body of the piece itself.  These include edges, faces, midpoints, and corners.  Each is a snap point for one of SketchUp’s tools.

Typical Inferences

Hover over the piece with the Move or Rotate tool to see inference hints.  Then click to snap the tool to that position and start the command sequence.

2.  Motion Inferences are red, green, or blue dashed lines that become visible as you Move or Rotate a piece parallel to a SketchUp axis.  The Shift key constrains the motion.  Press the left, right, or up arrow key to lock movement to an axis.  The Control key is used to leave a copy.

Typical Assembly

3.  Reference Inferences are similar to motion Inferences.  They display a dotted line when two Inference points are aligned.  Touch the reference Inference point with the cursor while moving or rotating a piece into position to let SketchUp know the desired alignment.  Here’s where the Shift or arrow keys are often necessary to constrain the move.

Centerlines and guidelines
To assemble cylinders (pipes, tubes, and fittings) use mating extensions.  The extension can be a projection from the centerline of the piece or any other axis important to the assembly.  A fixed length extension makes it possible to quickly join their endpoints and then move the pieces together.

Extension lines

Guidelines are necessary to ensure the quality of the final construction in the same way stringlines and chalklines are required in the field by any good builder.  They act as temporary references for site layout, as well as intersecting snap points to locate plates, studs, and rafters.  Guidelines are also important to center window and door frames, position equipment and furnishings, and install parts of a building’s system.

Insitebuilders - Being SUSTAINABLE, page 66

Piece-based process model
When pieces are assembled and tracked in virtual construction in the same way as they would be on a jobsite, the sequence and scope of the work is automatically built into the construction model.  And when these same pieces are nested into sub-assemblies, phases, and sub contracts in the Outliner, their visibility can also be controlled.

This makes it possible to both illustrate and animate the scope of the work, adding new potential to your practice and your market presence as a builder and construction manager.

ConXtech: A Revolution in Steel Framing Systems